SPEECH PRODUCTION IN ENGLISH BY STUDENTS WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENT: AN ACOUSTIC PHONETIC APPROACH
Children with special needs have taken wider attentions in research, especially in finding solutions of how to improve their abilities in communication. The purpose of this research is to identify the challenges and barriers in speech production in English by students with hearing impairments in Pangkalpinang City. Investigation and documentation were the main stages in collecting data. The data were studied using a descriptive method with a qualitative approach. Based on the foundation of phonetic theory by Collins and Mess (2019) regarding speech production and the character of children with hearing impairment by Dennis Fry, this research is aimed at analyzing the sounds produced by children with special needs. Experimental observation using Praat voice analyzer was carried out on students with three types of disabilities: students with vision impairment, with hearing impaired, and with mental or intellectual disability. The observation results showed that students with hearing impairments (partial and total deafness) were the main concern as their abilities in perceiving and producing speech gave them opportunities to communicate in English despite the barriers they had to face in pronouncing the words. As conclusion, students with hearing impairment both partial and total deafness produced their speech based on other vocal tracts due to their disability, and certain treatment in speech production should be suggested especially the phonemes involving internal articulators, including alveolar, velar, post-alveolar and nasal sounds. Proximities made in speech showed possibilities to refine their pronunciation.
 Abdurrahman, Mulyono. (1999). Pendidikan Bagi Anak Berkesulitan Belajar. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.
 Bahadorfar, Maryam and Omidvar, Reza. (2014). Technology in Teaching Speaking Skill. Dimuat dalam Acme International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research Volume 2 Issue 4, April 2014: 9-13.
 Bayer, J. B., Campbell, S. W., & Ling, R. (2015). Connection Cues: Activating the Norms and Habits of Social Connectedness. Communication Theory, 26(2), 128–149. doi:10.1111/comt.12090
 Benson-Goldberg, S., & Erickson, K. A. (2021). Praise in education. In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Education.
 Bybee, J. (2003). Phonology and Language Use (Vol. 94). Cambridge University Press.
 Collins, B and Mees, I. M. (2013). Practical Phonetics and Phonology. New York: Routledge.
 Dermawan, Oki. (2013). Strategi Pembelajaran Bagi Anak Kebutuhan Khusus di
SLB. Dimuat dalam Psympathic, Jurnal Ilmiah Psikologi Desember 2013,
Vol. VI, No.2 Hal: 886 – 897
 Faridi, Abdurrahman. (2009). Inovasi Pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris Berbasis ICT dalam Rangka Meningkatkan Mutu Pendidikan. Dimuat dalam Lembaran Ilmu Kependidikan Jilid 38 No.1, Juni 2009.
 Goldin-Meadow, S., & Brentari, D. (2017). Gesture, sign, and language: The coming of age of sign language and gesture studies. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 40.
 Graydon, K., Waterworth, C., Miller, H., & Gunasekera, H. (2019). Global burden of hearing impairment and ear disease. The Journal of Laryngology & Otology, 133(1), 18-25.
 Handhika, T., Zen, R. I. M., Lestari, D. P., & Sari, I. (2018, June). Gesture recognition for Indonesian sign language (BISINDO). In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1028, No. 1, p. 012173). IOP Publishing.
 Hao, Y., Lee, K. S., Chen, S. T., & Sim, S. C. (2019). An Evaluative Study of a Mobile Application for Middle School Students Struggling With English Vocabulary Learning. Computers in Human Behavior, 95, 208-216.
 Heil, C. R., Wu, J. S., Lee, J. J., & Schmidt, T. (2016). A Review of Mobile Language Learning Applications: Trends, challenges, and opportunities. The EuroCALL Review, 24(2), 32-50.
 Howerton-Fox, A., & Falk, J. L. (2019). Deaf children as ‘English learners’: The psycholinguistic turn in deaf education. Education Sciences, 9(2), 133.
 Jalaluddin, Mohammad. (2016). Using You-Tube to Enhance Speaking Skill in ESL Classroom. Dimuat dalam English for Specific Purposes World Volume 17 Issue No.50, 2016.
 Kadek Yati Fitria Dewi. (2019). Pengajaran Bahasa Inggris untuk Anak Luar Biasa
(ALB). Dimuat dalam DAIWI WIDYA Jurnal Pendidikan Vol.06 No.1 Edisi Juni 2019.
 Kurnia, D. R., & Slamet, T. (2016). Menormalkan yang Dianggap "Tidak Normal": Studi Kasus Penertiban Bahasa Isyarat Tunarungu di SLB Malang. Indonesian Journal of Disability Studies, 3(1), 34–43. Retrieved from https://ijds.ub.ac.id/index.php/ijds/article/view/32
 Ladefoged, P., & Disner, S. F. (2012). Vowels and consonants. John Wiley & Sons.
 O'Halpin, R. (2001). Intonation issues in the speech of hearing impaired children: Analysis, transcription and remediation. Clinical linguistics & phonetics, 15(7), 529-550.
 O’Sullivan, P. B., & Carr, C. T. (2018). Masspersonal communication: A model bridging the mass-interpersonal divide. New media & society, 20(3), 1161-1180.
 Subiyatningsih, Foriyani. (2018). Pemakaian Bahasa pada Text Ucapan Selamat Pagi di Whatsupp. Dimuat dalam METALINGUA Volume 16 No.2, Desember 2018.: 179-192.
 Subroto, Edi. (1992). Pengantar Metode Penelitian Linguistik Struktural. Surakarta: Sebelas Maret University Press.
 Swadesh, M. (2017). The Origin and Diversification of Language. Routledge.
 Vardiansyah, Dani. (2008). Filsafat Ilmu Komunikasi Suatu Pengantar. Cet II. Jakarta: PT. Index.
 Nel, Lezahneh. (2022). User Interface Design Principles. Retrieved from Marketsplash website: https://marketsplash.com/mobile-app-design/
 Quatieri, T. F. (2002). Discrete-time speech signal processing: principles and practice. Pearson Education India.
 WHO. (2017) Global Costs of Unaddressed Hearing Loss and Cost-Effectiveness of Intervention. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Copyright (c) 2023 Diana Anggraeni, Donal Fernado Lubis, Dini Wulansari
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.